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Assignment On Fundamental Rights Of India

The Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties are sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the State to its citizens and the duties and the rights of the citizens to the State.[note 1] These sections comprise a constitutional bill of rights for government policy-making and the behaviour and conduct of citizens. These sections are considered vital elements of the constitution, which was developed between 1947 and 1949 by the [[ Constitution of India

The Fundamental Rights are defined as the basic human rights of all citizens. These rights, defined in Part III of the Constitution, apply irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed, or gender. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to specific restrictions. The Directive Principles of State Policy are guidelines for the framing of laws by the government. These provisions, set out in Part IV of the Constitution, are not enforceable by the courts, but the principles on which they are based are fundamental guidelines for governance that the State is expected to apply in framing and passing law's.

The Fundamental Duties are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. These duties, set out in Part IV–A of the Constitution, concern individuals and the nation. Like the Directive Principles, they are not enforceable by the law.

History[edit]

See also: Indian independence movement, Constituent Assembly of India, Constitution of India, and India

The Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles had their origins in the Indian independence movement, which strove to achieve the values of liberty and social welfare as the goals of an independent Indian state.[1] The development of constitutional rights in India was inspired by historical documents such as England's Bill of Rights, the United States Bill of Rights and France's Declaration of the Rights of Man.[2] The demand for civil liberties formed an important part of the Indian independence movement, with one of the objectives of the Indian National Congress (INC) being to end discrimination between the British rulers and their Indian subjects. This demand was explicitly mentioned in resolutions adopted by the INC between 1917 and 1919.[3] The demands articulated in these resolutions included granting to Indians the rights to equality before law, free speech, trial by juries composed at least half of Indian members, political power, and equal terms for bearing arms as British citizens.[4]

The experiences of the First World War, the unsatisfactory Montague-Chelmsford reforms of 1919, and the rise to prominence of M. K. Gandhi in the Indian independence movement marked a change in the attitude of its leaders towards articulating demands for civil rights. The focus shifted from demanding equality of status between Indians and the British to assuring liberty for all Indians.[5] The Commonwealth of India Bill, drafted by Annie Beasant in 1925, specifically included demands for seven fundamental rights – individual liberty, freedom of conscience, free expression of opinion, freedom of assembly, non-discrimination on the ground of sex, free elementary education and free use of public spaces.[6] In 1927, the INC resolved to set up a committee to draft a "Swaraj Constitution" for India based on a declaration of rights that would provide safeguards against oppression. The 11-member committee, led by Motilal Nehru, was constituted in 1928. Its report made a number of recommendations, including proposing guaranteed fundamental rights to all Indians. These rights resembled those of the American Constitution and those adopted by post-war European countries, and several of them were adopted from the 1925 Bill. Several of these provisions were later replicated in various parts of the Indian Constitution, including the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.[7]

In 1931, the Indian National Congress, at its Karachi session, adopted a resolution committing itself to the defence of civil rights and economic freedom, with the stated objectives of putting an end to exploitation, providing social security and implementing land reforms. Other new rights proposed by the resolution were the prohibition of State titles, universal adult franchise, abolition of capital punishment and freedom of movement.[8] Drafted by Jawaharlal Nehru, the resolution, which later formed the basis for some of the Directive Principles, placed the primary responsibility of carrying out social reform on the State, and marked the increasing influence of socialism and Gandhian philosophy on the independence movement.[9] The final phase of the Independence movement saw a reiteration of the socialist principles of the 1930s, along with an increased focus on minority rights – which had become an issue of major political concern by then – which were published in the Sapru Report in 1945. The report, apart from stressing on protecting the rights of minorities, also sought to prescribe a "standard of conduct for the legislatures, government and the courts".[10]

During the final stages of the British raj, the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India proposed a Constituent Assembly to draft a Constitution for India as part of the process of transfer of power.[11] The Constituent Assembly of India, composed of indirectly elected representatives from the British provinces and Princely states, commenced its proceedings in December 1946, and completed drafting the Constitution of India by November 1949.[12] According to the Cabinet Mission plan, the Assembly was to have an Advisory Committee to advise it on the nature and extent of fundamental rights, protection of minorities and administration of tribal areas. Accordingly, the Advisory Committee was constituted in January 1947 with 64 members, and from among these a twelve-member sub-committee on Fundamental Rights was appointed under the chairmanship of J.B. Kripalani in February 1947.[13] The sub-committee drafted the Fundamental Rights and submitted its report to the Committee by April 1947, and later that month the Committee placed it before the Assembly, which debated and discussed the rights over the course of the following year, adopting the drafts of most of them by, December 1948.[14] The drafting of the Fundamental Rights was influenced by the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights by the U.N. General Assembly and the activities of the United Nations Human Rights Commission,[15] as well as decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court in interpreting the Bill of Rights in the American Constitution.[16] The Directive Principles, which were also drafted by the sub-committee on Fundamental Rights, expounded the socialist precepts of the Indian independence movement, and were inspired by similar principles contained in the Irish Constitution.[17] The Fundamental Duties were later added to the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976.[18]

Fundamental Rights[edit]

Main article: Fundamental Rights in India

The Fundamental Rights, embodied in Part III of the Constitution, guarantee civil rights to all Indians, and prevent the State from encroaching on individual liberty while simultaneously placing upon it an obligation to protect the citizens' rights from encroachment by society.[19] Seven fundamental rights were originally provided by the Constitution – right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to property and right to constitutional remedies.[20] However, the right to property was removed from Part III of the Constitution by the 44th Amendment in 1978.[21][note 2]

The purpose of the Fundamental Rights is to preserve individual liberty and democratic principles based on equality of all members of society.[22] Dr Ambedkar said that the responsibility of the legislature is not just to provide fundamental rights but also and rather more importantly, to safeguard them.

[23] They act as limitations on the powers of the legislature and executive, under Article 13,[note 3] and in case of any violation of these rights the Supreme Court of India and the High Courts of the states have the power to declare such legislative or executive action as unconstitutional and void.[24] These rights are largely enforceable against the State, which as per the wide definition provided in Article 12, includes not only the legislative and executive wings of the federal and state governments, but also local administrative authorities and other agencies and institutions which discharge public functions or are of a governmental character.[25] However, there are certain rights – such as those in Articles 15, 17, 18, 23, 24 – that are also available against private individuals.[26] Further, certain Fundamental Rights – including those under Articles 14, 20, 21, 25 – apply to persons of any nationality upon Indian soil, while others – such as those under Articles 15, 16, 19, 30 – are applicable only to citizens of India.[27][28]

The Fundamental Rights are not absolute and are subject to reasonable restrictions as necessary for the protection of public interest.[25] In the Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala case in 1973,[note 4] the Supreme Court, overruling a previous decision of 1967, held that the Fundamental Rights could be amended, subject to judicial review in case such an amendment violated the basic structure of the Constitution.[29] The Fundamental Rights can be enhanced, removed or otherwise altered through a constitutional amendment, passed by a two-thirds majority of each House of Parliament.[30] The imposition of a state of emergency may lead to a temporary suspension any of the Fundamental Rights, excluding Articles 20 and 21, by order of the President.[31] The President may, by order, suspend the right to constitutional remedies as well, thereby barring citizens from approaching the Supreme Court for the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights, except Articles 20 and 21, during the period of the emergency.[32] Parliament may also restrict the application of the Fundamental Rights to members of the Indian Armed Forces and the police, in order to ensure proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline, by a law made under Article 33.[33]

Right to Equality[edit]

The Right to Equality is one of the chief guarantees of the Constitution. It is embodied in Articles 14–16, which collectively encompass the general principles of equality before law and non-discrimination,[34] and Articles 17–18 which collectively encompass further the philosophy of social equality.[35] Article 14 guarantees equality before law as well as equal protection of the law to all persons within the territory of India.[note 5] This includes the equal subjection of all persons to the authority of law, as well as equal treatment of persons in similar circumstances.[36] The latter permits the State to classify persons for legitimate purposes, provided there is a reasonable basis for the same, meaning that the classification is required to be non-arbitrary, based on a method of intelligible differentiation among those sought to be classified, as well as have a rational relation to the object sought to be achieved by the classification.[37]

Article 15 prohibits discrimination on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. This right can be enforced against the State as well as private individuals, with regard to free access to places of public entertainment or places of public resort maintained partly or wholly out of State funds.[38] However, the State is not precluded from making special provisions for women and children or any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens, including the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This exception has been provided since the classes of people mentioned therein are considered deprived and in need of special protection.[39] Article 16 guarantees equality of opportunity in matters of public employment and prevents the State from discriminating against anyone in matters of employment on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, place of residence or any of them. It creates exceptions for the implementation of measures of affirmative action for the benefit of any backward class of citizens in order to ensure adequate representation in public service, as well as reservation of an office of any religious institution for a person professing that particular religion.[40]

The practice of untouchability has been declared an offence punishable by law under Article 17, and the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 has been enacted by the Parliament to further this objective.[35] Article 18 prohibits the State from conferring any titles other than military or academic distinctions, and the citizens of India cannot accept titles from a foreign state. Thus, Indian aristocratic titles and title of nobility conferred by the British have been abolished. However, awards such as the Bharat Ratna have been held to be valid by the Supreme Court on the ground that they are merely decorations and cannot be used by the recipient as a title.[41][42]

Right to Freedom[edit]

The Right to Freedom is covered in Articles 19-22, with the view of guaranteeing individual rights that were considered vital by the framers of the Constitution, and these Articles also include certain restrictions that may be imposed by the State on individual liberty under specified conditions. Article 19 guarantees six freedoms in the nature of civil rights, which are available only to citizens of India.[43][44] These include the freedom of speech and expression, freedom of assembly without arms, freedom of association, freedom of movement throughout the territory of our country, freedom to reside and settle in any part of the country of India and the freedom to practice any profession. All these freedoms are subject to reasonable restrictions that may imposed on them by the State, listed under Article 19 itself. The grounds for imposing these restrictions vary according to the freedom sought to be restricted, and include national security, public order, decency and morality, contempt of court, incitement to offences, and defamation. The State is also empowered, in the interests of the general public to nationalise any trade, industry or service to the exclusion of the citizens.[45]

The freedoms guaranteed by Article 19 are further sought to be protected by Articles 20–22.[46] The scope of these articles, particularly with respect to the doctrine of due process, was heavily debated by the Constituent Assembly. It was argued, especially by Benegal Narsing Rau, that the incorporation of such a clause would hamper social legislation and cause procedural difficulties in maintaining order, and therefore it ought to be excluded from the Constitution altogether.[47] The Constituent Assembly in 1948 eventually omitted the phrase "due process" in favour of "procedure established by law".[48]As a result, Article 21, which prevents the encroachment of life or personal liberty by the State except in accordance with the procedure established by law,[note 6] was, until 1978, construed narrowly as being restricted to executive action. However, in 1978, the Supreme Court in the case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India extended the protection of Article 21 to legislative action, holding that any law laying down a procedure must be just, fair and reasonable,[49] and effectively reading due process into Article 21.[50] In the same case, the Supreme Court also ruled that "life" under Article 21 meant more than a mere "animal existence"; it would include the right to live with human dignity and all other aspects which made life "meaningful, complete and worth living".[51] Subsequent judicial interpretation has broadened the scope of Article 21 to include within it a number of rights including those to livelihood, good health,[52] clean environment, water,[53] speedy trial[54] and humanitarian treatment while imprisoned.[55][56] The right to education at elementary level has been made one of the Fundamental Rights under Article 21A by the 86th Constitutional amendment of 2002.[57]

Article 20 provides protection from conviction for offences in certain respects, including the rights against ex post facto laws, double jeopardy and freedom from self-incrimination.[58] Article 22 provides specific rights to arrested and detained persons, in particular the rights to be informed of the grounds of arrest, consult a lawyer of one's own choice, be produced before a magistrate within 24 hours of the arrest, and the freedom not to be detained beyond that period without an order of the magistrate.[59] The Constitution also authorizes the State to make laws providing for preventive detention, subject to certain other safeguards present in Article 22.[60] The provisions pertaining to preventive detention were discussed with skepticism and misgivings by the Constituent Assembly, and were reluctantly approved after a few amendments in 1949.[61] Article 22 provides that when a person is detained under any law of preventive detention, the State can detain such person without trial for only three months, and any detention for a longer period must be authorised by an Advisory Board. The person being detained also has the right to be informed about the grounds of detention, and be permitted to make a representation against it, at the earliest opportunity.[62]

Right against Exploitation[edit]

The Right against Exploitation, contained in Articles 23–24, lays down certain provisions to prevent exploitation of the weaker sections of the society by individuals or the State.[63] Article 23 prohibits human trafficking, making it an offence punishable by law, and also prohibits forced labour or any act of compelling a person to work without wages where he was legally entitled not to work or to receive remuneration for it. However, it permits the State to impose compulsory service for public purposes, including conscription and community service.[64][65] The Bonded Labour system (Abolition) Act, 1976, has been enacted by Parliament to give effect to this Article.[66] Article 24 prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in factories, mines and other hazardous jobs. Parliament has enacted the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, providing regulations for the abolition of, and penalties for employing, child labour, as well as provisions for rehabilitation of former child labourers.[67]

Right to Freedom of Religion[edit]

The Right to Freedom of Religion, covered in Articles 25–28, provides religious freedom to all citizens and ensures a secular state in India. According to the Constitution, there is no official State religion, and the State is required to treat all religions impartially and neutrally.[68] Article 25 guarantees all persons the freedom of conscience and the right to preach, practice and propagate any religion of their choice. This right is, however, subject to public order, morality and health, and the power of the State to take measures for social welfare and reform.[69] The right to propagate, however, does not include the right to convert another individual, since it would amount to an infringement of the other's right to freedom of conscience.[70] Article 26 guarantees all religious denominations and sects, subject to public order, morality and health, to manage their own affairs in matters of religion, set up institutions of their own for charitable or religious purposes, and own, acquire and manage property in accordance with law. These provisions do not derogate from the State's power to acquire property belonging to a religious denomination.[71] The State is also empowered to regulate any economic, political or other secular activity associated with religious practice.[68] Article 27 guarantees that no person can be compelled to pay taxes for the promotion of any particular religion or religious institution.[72] Article 28 prohibits religious instruction in a wholly State-funded educational institution, and educational institutions receiving aid from the State cannot compel any of their members to receive religious instruction or attend religious worship without their (or their guardian's) consent.[68]

Cultural and Educational Rights[edit]

See also: Eighty-sixth Amendment of the Constitution of India and Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act

The Cultural and Educational rights, given in Articles 29 and 30, are measures to protect the rights of cultural, linguistic and religious minorities, by enabling them to conserve their heritage and protecting them against discrimination.[73] Article 29 grants any section of citizens having a distinct language, script culture of its own, the right to conserve and develop the same, and thus safeguards the rights of minorities by preventing the State from imposing any external culture on them.[73][74] It also prohibits discrimination against any citizen for admission into any educational institutions maintained or aided by the State, on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them. However, this is subject to reservation of a reasonable number of seats by the State for socially and educationally backward classes, as well as reservation of up to 50 percent of seats in any educational institution run by a minority community for citizens belonging to that community.[75]

Article 30 confers upon all religious and linguistic minorities the right to set up and administer educational institutions of their choice in order to preserve and develop their own culture, and prohibits the State, while granting aid, from discriminating against any institution on the basis of the fact that it is administered by a religious or cultural minority.[74] The term "minority", while not defined in the Constitution, has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to mean any community which numerically forms less than 50% of the population of the state in which it seeks to avail the right under Article 30. In order to claim the right, it is essential that the educational institution must have been established as well as administered by a religious or linguistic minority. Further, the right under Article 30 can be availed of even if the educational institution established does not confine itself to the teaching of the religion or language of the minority concerned, or a majority of students in that institution do not belong to such minority.[76] This right is subject to the power of the State to impose reasonable regulations regarding educational standards, conditions of service of employees, fee structure, and the utilisation of any aid granted by it.[77]

Right to Constitutional Remedies[edit]

The Right to Constitutional Remedies empowers citizens to approach the Supreme Court of India to seek enforcement, or protection against infringement, of their Fundamental Rights.[78] Article 32 provides a guaranteed remedy, in the form of a Fundamental Right itself, for enforcement of all the other Fundamental Rights, and the Supreme Court is designated as the protector of these rights by the Constitution.[79] The Supreme Court has been empowered to issue writs, namely habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, certiorari and quo warranto, for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights, while the High Courts have been empowered under Article 226 – which is not a Fundamental Right in itself – to issue these prerogative writs even in cases not involving the violation of Fundamental Rights.[80] The Supreme Court has the jurisdiction to enforce the Fundamental Rights even against private bodies, and in case of any violation, award compensation as well to the affected individual. Exercise of jurisdiction by the Supreme Court can also be suo motu or on the basis of a public interest litigation.[78] This right cannot be suspended, except under the provisions of Article 359 when a state of emergency is declared.[79]

The Supreme Court recently held that Right to Privacy is another fundamental right

Directive Principles of State Policy[edit]

Main article: Directive Principles in India

The Directive Principles of State Policy, embodied in Part IV of the Constitution, are directions given to the state to guide the establishment of an economic and social democracy, as proposed by the Preamble.[81] They set forth the humanitarian and socialist instructions that were the aim of social revolution envisaged in India by the Constituent Assembly.[82] The state is expected to keep these principles in mind while framing laws and policies, even though they are non-justiciable in nature. The Directive Principles may be classified under the following categories: ideals that the state ought to strive towards achieving; directions for the exercise of legislative and executive power; and rights of the citizens which the State must aim towards securing.[81]

Despite being non-justiciable, the Directive Principles act as a check on the state; theorised as a yardstick in the hands of the electorate and the opposition to measure the performance of a government at the time of an election.[83] Article 37, while stating that the Directive Principles are not enforceable in any court of law, declares them to be "fundamental to the governance of the country" and imposes an obligation on the State to apply them in matters of legislation.[84] Thus, they serve to emphasise the welfare state model of the Constitution and emphasise the positive duty of the state to promote the welfare of the people by affirming social, economic and political justice, as well as to fight income inequality and ensure individual dignity, as mandated by Article 38.[85][86]

Article 39 lays down certain principles of policy to be followed by the State, including providing an adequate means of livelihood for all citizens, equal pay for equal work for men and women, proper working conditions, reduction of the concentration of wealth and means of production from the hands of a few, and distribution of community resources to "subserve the common good".[87] These clauses highlight the Constitutional objectives of building an egalitarian social order and establishing a welfare state, by bringing about a social revolution assisted by the State, and have been used to support the nationalisation of mineral resources as well as public utilities.[88] Further, several legislation pertaining to agrarian reform and land tenure have been enacted by the federal and state governments, in order to ensure equitable distribution of land resources.[89]

Articles 41–43 mandate the State to endeavour to secure to all citizens the right to work, a living wage, social security, maternity relief, and a decent standard of living.[90] These provisions aim at establishing a socialist state as envisaged in the Preamble.[91] Article 43 also places upon the State the responsibility of promoting cottage industries, and the federal government has, in furtherance of this, established several Boards for the promotion of khadi, handlooms etc., in coordination with the state governments.[92] Article 39A requires the State to provide free legal aid to ensure that opportunities for securing justice are available to all citizens irrespective of economic or other disabilities.[93] Article 43A mandates the State to work towards securing the participation of workers in the management of industries.[91] The State, under Article 46, is also mandated to promote the interests of and work for the economic uplift of the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and protect them from discrimination and exploitation. Several enactments, including two Constitutional amendments, have been passed to give effect to this provision.[94]

Article 44 encourages the State to secure a uniform civil code for all citizens, by eliminating discrepancies between various personal laws currently in force in the country. However, this has remained a "dead letter" despite numerous reminders from the Supreme Court to implement the provision.[95] Article 45 originally mandated the State to provide free and compulsory education to children between the ages of six and fourteen years,[96] but after the 86th Amendment in 2002, this has been converted into a Fundamental Right and replaced by an obligation upon the State to secure childhood care to all children below the age of six.[57] Article 47 commits the State to raise the standard of living and improve public health, and prohibit the consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs injurious to health.[97] As a consequence, partial or total prohibition has been introduced in several states, but financial constraints have prevented its full-fledged application.[98] The State is also mandated by Article 48 to organise agriculture and animal husbandry on modern and scientific lines by improving breeds and prohibiting slaughter of cattle.[99] Article 48A mandates the State to protect the environment and safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country, while Article 49 places an obligation upon the State to ensure the preservation of monuments and objects of national importance.[100] Article 50 requires the State to ensure the separation of judiciary from executive in public services, in order to ensure judicial independence, and federal legislation has been enacted to achieve this objective.[101][102] The State, according to Article 51, must also strive for the promotion of international peace and security, and Parliament has been empowered under Article 253 to make laws giving effect to international treaties.[103]

Fundamental Duties[edit]

The Fundamental Duties of citizens were added to the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, upon the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee that was constituted by the government earlier that year.[18][104] Originally ten in number, the Fundamental Duties were increased to eleven by the 86th Amendment in 2002, which added a duty on every parent or guardian to ensure that their child or ward was provided opportunities for education between the ages of six and fourteen years.[57] The other Fundamental Duties obligate all citizens to respect the national symbols of India, including the Constitution, to cherish its heritage, preserve its composite culture and assist in its defense. They also obligate all Indians to promote the spirit of common brotherhood, protect the environment and public property, develop scientific temper, abjure violence, and strive towards excellence in all spheres of life.[105] However, many of these are non-justifiable, without any legal sanction in case of their violation or non-compliance.[106][104][107] There is reference to such duties in international instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and Article 51A brings the Indian Constitution into conformity with these treaties.[104]

The Fundamental Duties noted in the constitution are as follows:[108]

It shall be the duty of every citizen of India —

  • To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
  • To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  • To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  • To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  • To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity of women;
  • To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  • To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures;
  • To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  • To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  • To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;
  • Who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child, or as the case may be, ward between the age of six to fourteen years.
  • We the people of India hereby adopt that to make India a safer place to live we had to be clean and make our surrounding clean and not to hurt anybody physically and mentally.

(This fundamental duty has been added to the Constitution of India by the 86th constitutional amendment in 2002)

Criticism and analysis[edit]

Main article: Directive Principles

Abstract

This dissertation is focused on the fundamental rights in the Constitution of Bangladesh .This dissertation corely tries to analyse critically few fundamental rights like prohibition of foreign title, suspension of fundamental rights during emergency .Some cases regarding this rights also bee studied in this dissertation. Finally some recommendations have been placed.

Introduction

The doctrine of fundamental rights is feature of United States law under which certain human rights that enshrined in the US constitution are given a high degree of judicial deference in conflicts between individual liberty and governmental intrusion. Although many fundamental rights are also more widely considered to be human rights. The classification of a right as fundamental invokes specific legal tests used by courts to determine the carefully contained conditions under which the United States Government and the various state governments may impose limitations on this right.

            Fundamental rights give the citizens dignity of life in an atmosphere of freedom and justice beyond the man made fetters that had constricted their physical and mental horizons. Modern judiciary is regarded as an excellent product of civilization to put the concept of justice to work in the midst of divergent force with conflicting class or individual interests. Such conflicts make is difficult to bring about equilibrium in the society for a peaceful and orderly association of citizens for their common good. An independent judiciary and strong democratic institutions are the best guarantee against assaults on the rights of the citizens.

            This dissertation is mainly focusing on the features of fundamental rights in the constitution of Bangladesh inspired by the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948; the constitution of Bangladesh enumerated some basic civil and political rights common to most liberal democracies and also insures the rights to constitutional remedies for the protection of these rights. In addition, the fundamental rights of the constitution of Bangladesh are aimed at overturning the inequalities of past social practice. I prohibit discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, sex, color place of birth and forbid trafficking human being and forced labor.

            Thomas Jefferson said, “We hold these truths to be self-evident. That all men are created equal. That they are endowed by their creator with certain inalienable secure these rights, government are instituted among men, deriving their just powers form the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of those ends, it shall be the right of the people to alter or abolish it and to institute new government, laying its foundations upon such principles, and organizing its power in such forms, as shall seem to them most likely to effect their safety and happiness”.

            This easy is merely focusing on the features of fundamental rights as have been preserved in the constitution of Bangladesh. The frames of Bangladesh have been discussed in Article basis starting from the preamble of the constitution. The frames of these constitutions practically show concern for necessity of protecting human rights and ensuring fundamental freedoms. In the preamble of the constitution they declared that it shall be a fundamental object of the state to realize through the democratic process a society free from exploitation, a society in which the rule of law, the fundamental human rights and freedom, equality and justice, political, Economical and social will be secured for all citizens.

            The universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948, which states –

Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunal for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law. Rights and freedoms from the bedrock of democracy. No democracy can function successfully in the absence of some basic freedoms. Again, modern democratic government is a party government. The party winning majority in the election form the government. But coming in to power the government may turn itself into a one violating the basic rights of people and oppressing the opposition. The aim of having a declaration of fundamental rights in the constitution is to prevent such a possible danger. In order words, they provide a restraint on the power of the government so that it can not interface with the people’s basic rights according to its whims. When rights and freedom are placed the part of the supreme law and the government can not take them away except by constitution amending process which is always a right one. This is why insertion of a Bill of right in a written constitution is considered to be one of the safeguards of democracy. Bangladesh accepted fundamental rights and incorporated the same in their constitution. Within less than a year after the emergence of Bangladesh as a new, independent, sovereign republic, the constitution of Bangladesh was passed, though; however, it came into force on December 16, 1972, the first anniversary of the day of liberation.

What is Rights?

Before understanding fundamental rights are should have idea about rights and human rights. Rights mean a claim of some interests adverted by an individual or a group of individual which has either moral or legal basis and which is essential for his development in the society. In a sense right not created by law it originates itself as an obvious result of mutual interaction between man and society. Rights are primarily divided in to two categories-moral rights and legal rights.

What are Human rights?

The term “human rights” which does not mean any right is used in special sense. Human rights are those of legal and moral rights which can be claimed by any person for the very reason that is a human being. These rights come with birth and applicable to all people through out the world irrespective of their race, color, sex, language or political or other opinion. These are therefore those rights that are inherent in human person and without which they cannot live as human beings.

What are fundamental rights?    

The term fundamental right is a technical one, for when certain human rights are written down in a constitution and protected by constitutional guarantees they are called fundamental rights. They are called fundamental rights in that sense that they are placed in the supreme or fundamental law of the land which has a supreme society over all other law of the land. Article 26 to 47 of Bangladesh constitution confers a number of substantive fundamental rights on every citizen of Bangladesh e.g. the right to freedom of expression, assembly, association, movement and profession

Distinction between Human rights and Fundamental rights

There are some Fundamental distinction between directives and fundamental rights:

         First,   when certain human rights are written down in a Constitution, a supreme law, and protected by constitutional guarantees they are called fundamental rights. Directive principles, on the other hand, are polices relating to social, economic and cultural rights which are to be followed in governance of the country.

         Second,   fundamental rights are enforceable in a court of law and they create justiciable rights in favour of individuals. And the courts can enforce them against the government. Again, the courts are competent to declare as void any law that is inconsistent with any of the fundamental rights. The directives, on the other hand, are not enforceable in a court of law and they do not create any jucticiable rights in favour of individuals. The court can not compel the government to carry out any of the directives. Again, the courts cannot declare any void, which is otherwise valid, on the ground that it contravenes any of directives principles.

         Third,   fundamental rights are mandatory in nature whereas directives are declaratory in nature as they have expressly been excluded from the preview of the courts.

         Fourth,   the fundamental rights create negative obligation on the state, i.e., the state is required to refrain from doing something. The directives, on the other hand, impose positive obligation on the state i.e., to implement these principles the state will have to achieve certain ends by its actions.

         Fifth,   the directive principles may be described as inchoate fundamental rights while the fundamental rights are full-fledged i.e. the former requires legislation to become effective while the latter need not requires such legislation. And so long there is no law carrying out the policy laid down in directives neither the state nor an individual can violate any existing law or legal right under the colour of directive principles.

         Sixth,   Fundamental rights are primarily aimed at assuring political freedom to citizens by protecting them against excessive state action while directive principles are aimed at securing social and economics freedom  by appropriate state action.

Nature of Fundamental Rights

The Fundamental Rights were intended to serve three important purposes, namely:

1. to prevent the Executive from acting arbitrarily;

2. to ensure some amount of security and protection to various types of minorities; and

3. to promote and foster social revolution by establishing the conditions necessary for achieving justice, social, economic and political.

The immutability and permanence of the Fundamental Rights were sought to be established first on the reasoning that these rights are rooted in the doctrine of natural law and were, therefore, natural rights as expressed in the traditional parlance and secondly, on the ground that they have been given a place of permanence by the constitution within  its scheme. But the Fundamental Rights as contained in part III of the constitution, are neither rooted in the doctrine of natural law nor did they base on the theory of reserved rights. They are conferred rights and embody the social values of the present generation. As the social values are not static, the Fundamental Rights are subject to changes and modifications in order to fulfill the aspirations of man in the context of his changed conditions and environment in which he lives.

Classification of Fundamental Rights

The Fundamental Rights enumerated in the Bangladesh Constitution may be classified in to following three groups:

A. Absolute Rights:

 1.        Equality before law, (Art. 27).

 2.        Discrimination on grounds of religion etc (Art.28).

 3.        Equity of opportunity in public employment (Art.29).

 4.        Prohibition of foreign titles etc (Art.30).

 5.        Safe guards as to arrest and detention (Art.33).

 6.        Prohibition of forced labour (Art.34).

 7.        Protection in respect of trial and punishment (Art.35).

 8.        Enforcement of Fundamental Rights (Art.44).

B. Rights on which reasonable restriction can be imposed:

 1.        Freedom of movement (Art.36).

 2.        Freedom of Assembly (Art.37).

 3.        Freedom of Association (Art.38).

 4.        Freedom of thought and conscience and of speech (Art.39).

 5.        Freedom of religion (Art. 40)

 6.        Protection of home and correspondence.

C. Fundamental rights which has been practically left to the legislature

1. Right to protection of law (Art.31)

2. Protection of right to life and personal liberty (Art.32)

 3. Right to lawful profession, occupation or business (Art.40)

 4. Protection of property right (Art.42)

Fundamental Rights in Bangladesh constitution

18 fundamental rights have been enumerated in the constitution commencing from Article 27 to 44. All of these rights are civil and political rights. These 18 fundamental rights may be firstly divided into two groups:

a. Rights granted to all persons-citizens and non citizens alike. These are six rights enumerated in Articles 32, 33, 34, 35, 41 and 44 of the constitution.

b. Rights granted to citizens of Bangladesh only, these are 12 rights enumerated in Articles 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 42 and 43.

Briefly discussion Article basis starting from Fundamental rights in Bangladesh constitution.

1. Laws in consistent with Fundamental rights to be void

Article, 26 Provides that all existing laws inconsistent with the fundamental rights as provided in part III shall to the extent of the inconsistency become void on the commencement of the constitution and the state shall not make any law inconsistent with those rights. In our jurisdiction, the case of Anwar Hossain v. Bangladesh, popularly known as the constitution (Eight Amendment) case has also expressed the same view.

         In that decision, Shahabuddin Ahmed, j. held at paragraph 381, as under: “As to the constituent power, that is power to make a constitution, it belongs to the people along. It is the original power. It is doubtful whether it can be vested in the parliament, though opinion differ, people after making a constitution give the parliament power to amend it in exercising its legislative power strictly following certain special procedures constitutions of Anwar Hossain v. Bangladesh popularly known as the constitution (Eight Amendments) case has also expressed the same view. In that decision, Shahabuddin Ahmed, j. held at paragraph 381, as under “As to the constituent power, that is power to make a constitution, it belongs to the people along. It is the original power. It is doubtful whether it can be vested in the parliament, though opinion differ, people after making a constitution give the parliament power to amend it in exercising its legislative power strictly following certain special procedures constitutions of some countries may be amended like any other status following the ordinary legislative procedure. Even if the constituent power is vested in the parliament the power is a derivative one and the mere fact that an amendment has been made in exercise of the derivative constituent power will not automatically make the amendment immune from challenge. In that sense there is hardly any difference whether the amendment is a law, for it has to pass through the order in validity test my considered opinion therefore is that an amendment of the constitution is not included in law” with in the meaning of Article 7 in the same way as it is not law in Article.

2. Equality before law

Article 27 guarantees every citizen’s right to equality before the law and the equal protection of the laws. It combines the English concept of equality before law and the American concept of equal protection of law.

“Equality before law” means that among equals law shall be equal and shall be equally administered. There shall not be any special privilege by reason of birth, creed etc. “Equal protection of law” means that all persons in like circumstances shall be treated alike and no discrimination shall be made in conferment of privileges or imposition of liabilities. The first part is negative while the second is positive in approach. Equality before law is involved in the enforcement of law, while equal protection of law involves the validity of a law. But these are not independent or severable concepts in their application and will often be found to overlap each other this article more than others firmly embodies the concept of rule of law the establishment of which is one of the prime objectives of the constitution.

3. Discrimination on grounds of religion etc

Art. 28 has been introduced to make classification only or grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth parse unreasonable except when a provision is made in favor of women, children and backward section of citizens.

           As a matter of fact, this article projects the citizen against discrimination. The state can not discrimination only on the grounds as mentioned in Article 28, but with some other national factor, the discrimination would be valid. The crucial word in this Article is discrimination which means making an adverse destination with regard to or distinguishing unfavorably from others.

4. Equality of opportunity in public employment

Clause (1) of Article 29 of the constitution guarantees equality of opportunity for all citizens in the matter of employment or office in the service of the Republic. The expression “the service of the Republic” means any service, post or office whether in a civil or military capacity, in respect of the government of Bangladesh and any other service declared by law to be a service of the Republic. Equality of opportunity in respect of employment under this clause means equality as between members of the same class of employees and not equality between members of separate classes. This clause gives effect to the doctrine of equality in respect of appointment as well as promotion. Inequality of opportunity for promotion between holders of posts in the same grade may be an infringement of this clause, but those who hold post in different grades are not entitled to invoke it. When an application for a post has been made, it must be considered on merits. Clause (2)

         Prohibits discrimination in respect of employment an office in the service of Bangladesh on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Where selection for promotion to the next higher grade is on the “basis of seniority cum-merit” a public servant is entitled to claim relief under this clause if he is placed in the placed in the list of seniority contrary to the rules governing seniority. Clause (3) provides an exception by restricting the operation of clauses (1) and (2) of Article 29. A provision an exception can not be so interpreted as to nullify or destroy the main provision.

          In the case of  Bangladeshv. Azizur Rahman,   will interpreting Article 29 of the constitution, Equal opportunity held at paragraph 44 as under: The guarantee of equal opportunity in respect of employment is available at the stage of initial appointment and of promotion. Merely because chances of promotion of the write petitioners may be said to have been affected by the impugned rules of 1990 would not amount to denial of equality of opportunity in respect of the employment, as chances of promotion are not conditions of service. As a matter of fact, no writ petitioners have been deprived of the right to be considered for promotion and as such, the submission that they have been denied the right of equal opportunity in respect of future employment is untenable and there is in fact no violation of Article 29(1) of the constitution.

5. Prohibition of foreign titles, etc

Article 30 provides that No citizen shall, without the prior approval of the president, accept any title, honor, award or decoration from any foreign state.

6. Right to protection of law

Article 31 deals with the protection of law to be enjoyed by citizens and persons residing in Bangladesh and in particular, in respect of life, liberty, body, reputation and property. The term in accordance with law is akin to American concept.

7. Protection of Right to life and personal liberty

No personal shall be derived of life on personal liberty saved in accordance with law. In the case of Islam Mahmud v. Bangladesh, H.m.Habibur Rahman, j. held that the detaining authority must have some jurisdictional facts for detaining an individual, since the detaining authority is curtailing the liberty of a citizen by detaining him on preventive detention; it is exercising a non-judicial authority. To curtail fundamental rights of personal liberty enshrined in the constitution it is essential that the detaining authority.

Must have report and materials that is jurisdictional facts for exercising power to detain the detune under the special power Act.

8. Safeguards as to arrest and detention

Article 33 consists of two parts: Clauses (1) and (2) relate to persons otherwise than a preventive detention of law. Clauses from (3) to (6) apply to person arrested or detained under preventive detention. This Article provides for protection against unreasonable arrest and detention. This Article provides for some specific procedural safeguard as in clause (1) of 33, a person in detention is entitled to know the grounds of his arrest and he cannot be denied the right to consult or be defended by a lawyer of his/her choice. In clause (2) a person arrested must be produced before the nearest magistrate within twenty four hours excluding the tie for such journey. The Article provides for certain substantive and procedural safeguard in respect of deprivation of life and personal liberty as a matter of fact, disclosure of grounds of arrest and detention before a magistrate even mandatory, under clause (1) of Article 33. There are numerous judicial decisions of the supreme court of Bangladesh on the question of preventive detention and the safeguards to be observed have become a highly specialized subject. Clause (4) provides that no person can be detained at the first place exceeding six months and during this time he must be given an opportunity to be heard by an Advisory Board. This clause also speaks of the constitution of the board. Clause (5) of Article 33 provides for early communication of grounds of detention of such person, the provision of this clause also authorizes the detaining authority for not disclosure of facts in public interest.

   In the case of professor Ghulam Azam v. Bangladesh, Md. Abdul jalil, j. held at paragraph 25 asunder: From the facts and circumstances as discussed above we are of the opinion that the petitioner having been living in Bangladesh is entitled to the protection under Article 33(5) of the constitution and as such the detaining authority was under constitutional obligation to communicate grounds of detention as soon as may be,  but no grounds were communicated within such long period of more than 1 year and 3 months.31

9. Prohibition of forced labour

Clause (1) of Article 34 prohibits all forms of forced labour and any contravention of this rule has been made punishable in accordance with law. Clause (2) prevents persons undergoing punishment for sentence given by a court of law from invoking the prohibition against forced labour provided in the proceeding clause and further the state is empowered to require compulsory services for public purposes. The Article does not expressly mention slavery as has been mentioned in the thirteen Amendments of the United States constitution, and though there is no longer the remotest likelihood of enforcing such institution the prohibition against forced labour would extend to it if at all any attempt is made to introduce it.

10. Protection in respect of trial and punishment

Article 35 guarantees a cluster of rights in respect of trial and punishment. Clause (1) provides protection against ex post facto laws, clause (2) provides guarantee against double jeopardy, clause speedy and fair trial: clause (4) grants privilege against self incrimination and clause (5) prohibits torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment. Clause (6) provides that nothing in clause (3) or clause (5) shall affect the operation of any existing law, which prescribes any punishment or procedure for trial.

11. Freedom of movement

Rights of locomotion is an important part of liberty, the right of a person to move freely to reside where he will and to work where he will is connected with his livelihood and pursuit of happiness. Even though this right may be protected by the due process clause of art, 31, as an important segment of liberty, the frames of the constitution made special provision to protect the freedom of movement of citizens, Art.36 provides that subject to reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the public interest, every citizen has the right to move freely through out Bangladesh, to reside and settle in any place in Bangladesh, and to leave and re-enter Bangladesh.

         In the case of Dr. Mohiuddinfarooque v. bangldesh and others, Mustafa Kamal, j. held at paragraph 31 as under: These rights, attached to a citizen are not local. They pervade and extend to every inch of the territory of Bangladesh stretching up to continental shelf.

12. Freedom of assembly

Every citizen shall have the right to assemble and to participate in public meetings and processions peacefully and without arms, subject to any reasonable restrictions imposed by law in the interests of public order or public health.

13. Freedom of Association

The very existence of democracy is dependent on the right to form associations, without the right there can not be any political party which is an essential institution of democracy. The right of free association is closely allied with the freedom of speech and which is a right to free speech, and foundation of a free society.

14. Freedom of thought, conscience speech and press

Freedom of thought and conscience is essential to the development of human personality and every person should be free in his thought and conscience. On the other, freedom of speech is essential for the development and functioning of democracy. Without freedom of speech there can not be any democracy and the first thing and autocrat does is to curb the freedom of speech.

         In the case of Bangladesh National curriculum and Text Board v. A.Msamsuddin and others, A.T.M.Afzal, c.j. held at paragraph 32 while interpreting Article 32(2) as under: The right to freedom of speech and expression as claimed by the writ petitioners does not extend to the right of printing and publishing of note books or textbook prepared and published by the textbook board under stationary authority the court was not justified in declaring the impugned Act to be ultra vires of Article 39(2) of the constitution.

15. Freedom of profession or occupation

Article 40 provides that every citizen shall have the right to enter upon any lawful profession or occupation and to conduct any lawful trade or business.

16. Freedom of religion

Article 41 ensures that every citizen has the right to profess, practice or propagate any religion and every religious community on group can establish, maintain and manage its religious institutions subject to reasonable restriction imposed by law on the ground of public order and morality.

17. Rights to property

Article 41 guaranteed that every citizen has right to acquire, hold, transfer or otherwise dispose of property, subject to restrictions imposed by law compulsory acquisition, nationalization and requisition of property is not permissible without the authority of law.

18. Protection of home and correspondence

Article 43 ensures the citizens right to be secured in his home against entry, search and seizure and also to the privacy of his correspondence and other means of communication.

Restriction can be imposed on such rights on the ground of security of the state, public order, public morality and public health. This article guarantees the privacy of home and correspondence and communications.

19. Enforcement of fundamental rights

Article 44(1) provides that the right to move the Supreme Court for enforcement of any of the fundamental rights is itself a fundamental right. Art. 44(2) enables parliament to confer the jurisdiction to enforce fundamental rights on any other court, but such conferment cannot be in derogation of the power of the Supreme Court under Art. 102(1) which means that such other court may be given concurrent, but not exclusive, power of enforcement of fundamental rights. The Court must always have the power of enforcement of fundamental rights.

Modification of rights in respect of disciplinary law

Article 45 is a modification of rights in respect of disciplinary law. The provisions of part III will not be applicable to the members of disciplined forces for ensuring proper discharge of their duties or maintenance of discipline in that force, disciplinary law is kept out of the ambit of enforcement of fundamental rights.

Power to provide indemnity

Article 46 grants indemnity by law in respect of acts dines during the national liberation struggle or the maintenance or restoration or order in any area in Bangladesh.

Saving for certain laws

47 certain laws have been saved and Clause (1) of this Article grants immunity form challenge on the ground of violation of fundamental rights. Clause (2) gives the protection of certain laws in first schedule in spite of the inconsistency with any provision of the constitution. Clause (3) of this article provides for detention, prosecution and punishment for genocide, war crimes against humanity under international law and in case of conflict with any provision of this constitution, the law made for such detention, prosecution or punishment of any person under international law shall not be void.

Inapplicability of certain Articles

The persons in respect of whom Clause (3) of Article 47 applies shall be precluded from moving the Supreme Court for any remedy under the constitution. It provides for inapplicability of certain Article of this part mentioned in Article 47(A) of the constitution.

 In the above-named the Article basis starting from the preamble, Security for the fundamental rights in Bangladesh constitution.

Supremacy of the Fundamental Rights

Supremacy of the Fundamental Rights is safeguarded by the constitution of Bangladesh. It is a rigid constitution; it can be amended by two third majorities of the parliament members.

            The constitution but not parliament is supreme. It is stated in the preamble that it is our sacred duties to safeguard protects and defend this constitution and to maintain its supremacy as the embodiment of the will of the people of Bangladesh. Article 7 states all powers in the Republic belong to the people and their exercise on behalf of the people shall be affected only under and by the authority of this constitution. This constitution is as the solemn expression of the will of the people. The supremacy of law of republic and if any other law is inconsistent with constitution that other law shall to the extent of the inconsistency to void. Article 26 states that all existing laws inconsistent with the provisions of this part i.e. Fundamental Rights, shall to the extent of such inconsistency become void on the commencement of this constitution. The state shall not to make any law inconsistent with the provision of this part and any law so made shall to the extent of such inconsistency is void. Under article 102 the Supreme Court has been empowered to scrutinize the government actions done is violation of Fundamental Rights. Again under Article 7 and 26 the Supreme Court exercises the power of judicial review i.e. to examine the constitutionality of any law passed by the parliament.

Imposition of Restriction over Fundamental Right

The enjoyment of rights can now where be seen in an absolute position, for the enjoyment of one’s right in the society is subject to the enjoyment of other’s right. Moreover, modern states are welfare states where-collective interests are given priority over individual’s rights or interests. Unrestricted individual liberty becomes a license are jeopardizes the liberty of others. Civil liberties as guaranteed by the constitution imply the existence of an organized society maintaining public order without liberty it sells would be lost in the excess of unrestrained abuses. If individuals are allowed to have absolute freedom of speech and action, the result would be chaos, ruin and anarchy. On the other hand, if state has absolute power to determine the extent of personal liberty, the result would be tyranny. So restrictions may be imposed on the enjoyment of fundamental rights for the greater purpose of public welfare. This idea has got recognition in article 29(2) of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948-

‘In the exercise of his rights and freedoms, everyone shall be subject only to such limitations as are determined by law solely for the purpose of securing due recognition and respect for the rights and freedoms of others and of meeting the just requirements of morality public order and the general welfare in a democratic society. It is also worthy here to mention the judgment of justice Mukharjee in Gopolanv. State of Madras. There cannot be any such thing as absolute or uncontrolled liberty wholly free from restraint; for that would lead to anarchy and disorder. The possession and enjoyment of all rights are subject to such reasonable conditions as may be deemed by the governing authority of the country essential to the safety, healthy, peace, general order and morals of the community.

The Enforcement of the Fundamental Rights

The insertion of fundamental rights in a constitution in a constitution becomes meaningless rights if it is not provided by the constitution for easy and effective procedure for their enforcement. And this easy and effective enforcement should be available not only against the executive but also against the legislative. If the executive does anything in violation of fundamental rights, the citizens must have a remedy. Similar if the legislature enacts any law which is inconsistent with any of the fundamental rights, there must be procedure to declare that law unconstitutional. The idea of protection of fundamental rights can be best understood from the American Declaration of Independence, 1776 where it is stated that all men are created equal that they are endowed by their creator with certain in alienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights governments are instituted among men deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is right of the people to alter or abolish it and to institute a new one. The declaration, therefore, has laid the utmost emphasis on the enforcement of rights that if the peoples rights for the protection of which the government is formed, can not be enforced than the government would be useless, the importance of remedies to enforce fundamental rights has got recognition in article 8 of the universal declaration of human rights, 1948 which states-

            “Every one has the right on an effective remedy by the competent national tribunal for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law”.

EFFECT OF VIOLATION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

Art. 26(1) provides that all existing law inconsistent with the provisions of Part III shall, to the extent of inconsistency, become void on the commencement of the Constitution, while art. 26(2) provides that the State shall not make any law inconsistent with any provisions of Part III, and any law so made shall, to the extent of inconsistency, be void. Questions arise as to whether a law inconsistent with the provisions of Part III becomes void ab initio or simply unenforceable and whether the effect of inconsistency is the same in respect of the pre-constitution and post-constitution laws.

         The American Constitution does not contain any provision similar to art.7 or art.26 of the Constitution. Applying the general principles of constitutional law  the American Supreme Court held early that an unconstitutional law is in reality no law and is wholly void; it imposes no duties and creates no rights and it confers no power or authority and justifies no act performed under it.[50] But an all-inclusive statement of a principle of absolute retroactive invalidity was later found to be not justified.[51] It was held that an unconstitutional statue is not necessarily a nullity; it may have consequences binding upon people.[52] Proceeding on the principle that a statue declared unconstitutional is void in the sense that it is inoperative or unenforceable and remains in a dormant state or hibernation, it was held by the federal Court of Appeal that a statue once declared unconstitutional and later held to be constitutional does not require re-enactment to restore its operative force.

         The Indian Constitution contains art.13 which is similar to art.26 of the Constitution. So far as the pre-constitutional laws are concerned, the Indian Supreme Court held that the provisions relating to fundamental rights are not retrospective in operation on the commencement of the Constitution, and any pre-constitution law, to the extent of inconsistency with fundamental rights, is void in the sense that it is unenforceable; when it was passed it was valid and with

         The commencement of the constitution its operation is eclipsed by the provisions of the constitution. If the constitution is so amended as to remove the inconsistency, the law becomes operative without re-enactment. But the law remains valid all the time as against those who are not entitled to fundamental rights. So far as post-constitutional law the Indian Supreme Court held the view that such a law is void ab initio and anything done under the unconstitutional law, whether closed, completed or inchoate, will be wholly illegal; such a law is not revived by any subsequent event. The court seems to have shifted form this position in Gujarat v. Shri Ambica Mills wherein it took the view that where fundamental rights have been conferred only on some persons, natural or justice, a pre-constitution or post-constitution law contravening those rights is void qua those persons on whom the rights have been conferred, but is valid qua other person on whom those rights have not been conferred and it cannot be said that such a law is still-born or non est; the doctrine of eclipse equally applies to pre-constitution and post-constitution laws which violate rights conferred only on some persons.

         The Pakistan Constitution of 1956 contained provisions similar to art.26 of the Constitution. In East Pakistan vs. Mehdi Ali Khan the Pakistan Supreme Court was dealing with a pre-constitution law and following the line adopted by the American Supreme Court made a distinction between the legislatures inherent luck of power to enact a law in which case the law is void ab initio and a limitation put on the power of a competent legislatures which renders the law void only to the extent of inconsistency in the sense that it cannot be applied to a particular case. Art.6 of Pakistan Constitution of 1962 contained a similar provision.

Prohibition of Foreign Title

The modern State is a sovereign State. It is, therefore, independent in the face of other communities. It may infuse its will towards them with a substance which need not be affected by the will of any external power. It is, moreover, internally supreme over the territory that it controls. It issues order to all men all association within that area; it receives orders from none of them. Its will is subject to no legal limitation of any kind. What it purposes is right by the mere announcement of intention.

But such a theory of sovereignty has at least three aspects from which it demands a careful scrutiny. It needs in the first place, historical analyses. The State as it now is has not escaped the categories of time. It has become what it is by virtue of an historical evolution. That development both explains the character of its present power and, at the last, offers hints as to its possible future. It is, secondly, a theory of law. It makes of right merely the expression of a particular will, without reference to what that will contains. Such a definition, as will be seen, has about it an unquestionable logic; but the assumptions upon which it is compelled to build make it valueless for political philosophy.

The modern theory of sovereignty is, thirdly, a theory of political organization. It insists that there must be in every social order some single centre of ultimate reference, some power that is able resolve disputes by saying a last word that will be obeyed. From the political angle, such a view, as will be argued, is of dubious correctness in fact; and it is at least probable that it has dangerous moral consequences. It will be here argued that it would be of lasting benefit to political science if the whole concept of sovereignty were surrendered. That, in fact, with which we are dealing, is power; and what is important in the nature of power is the end it seeks to serve and the way in which it serves that end. These are both questions of evidence which are related to, but independent of, the rights that are born of legal structure. For there is historically, no limit to the variety of ways in which the use of power may be organized. The sovereign State, historically, is merely one of those ways, an incident in its evolution the utility of which has now reached its apogee. The problem before us has become, because of the unified interests of mankind, that of bending the modern State to the interests of humanity. The dogmas we use to that end are relatively of little important, so long as we are assured that the end is truly served.

Necessity in prohibiting foreign title.

It’s not needed to prohibit the foreign title because, all human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. So every person shall have the right to move freely throughout in the world. The present civilization is not closed in any special territory. In this present era of information and technology, all types of works have fallen into the same boundary. Thought of people are not limited. As this is the time of globalization, the problem and solution of all people should be solved in the same way.

And that’s why it is not necessary to prohibit the foreign title.

Suspension of Fundamental Rights during emergency.

There are emergency provisions in the constitution of some countries but nowhere it is exactly defined what emergency is. Normally emergency means an unexpected occurrence requiring immediate action.The idea of suspension of some fundamental rights in time of emergency is common to all legal systems. Somewhere the constitution itself and somewhere a special law makes provisions in legal terms for situations of crisis when states of emergency may be involved.

         The necessity for suspension of certain rights in times of emergency is internationally recognized. Almost all regional and international instruments of human rights make provisions for suspension of rights in cases of emergency. Article 4(1) of the international covenant on civil and political rights, 1966, article 15 of the European convention for the protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedom 1950 and article 27 of the American convention on Human Rights, 1969 make, more or less, the same provision to the effect that in time of war, public danger, or other emergency that threatens the independence or security of a state party, it may take measures derogating from its obligation under the convention. Bangladesh has been under a state of Emergency since January 11, 2007. This is the fifth time this has happened since the independence issued by the president clearly declared that “the right to lodge cases with the courts in order to reinstate the fundamental rights ensured in part III of the constitution shall remain suspended during the State of emergency” according to the Article 141B and 141C of the constitution of Bangladesh. Article 141B concerns the suspension of provisions of certain article during emergencies and Article 141C concerns the suspension of enforcement of fundamental rights during January 25, 2007.   Both the ordinance and the rules have empowered the “law and order maintaining force” to arrest citizen without a warrant, Around 55,000 military personnel were already deployed on December 9, 2006- 33 days before the store of Emergency to “aid the civil administration for the maintenance of law and order in the country according to the Home Ministry’s proclamation”.

1.While a proclamation of Emergency is in operation, the president may, on the written advice of the prime Minister, [by order], declare that the right to move any court for the enforcement of such of the rights conferred by part III of this constitution as may be specified in the order, and all proceedings pending in any court for the enforcement of the right so specified, shall remain suspended for the period during which the proclamation is in force or for such shorter period as may be specified in the order.

2. An order made under this article may extend to the whole of Bangladesh or any part thereof.

3. Every order made under this article shall, as soon as may be, be laid before parliament.

Amendment Relating to Enforceability of Fundamental Rights

Two very significant events have taken place which have had significant events taken place which have had significant consequence upon the operation and enforcement of the fundamental rights. One is the proclamation of emergency throughout the country on December 28, 1974 whose effect, however is bound to be short lived. As consequences of this proclamation an order was passed on the court of law during the continuance of the emergency. As soon as the emergency ends, these rights will be revived. The other event which is of permanent nature is the enactment of the constitution (Fourth Amendment) Act, 1975 on January 25, 1975. So far, the changes effected by the forth amendment to the constitution relater to the enforcement of the fundamental rights, its is unusualness is as attractive as it is full of significance, if not for any other reason, at least for introducing a unique and unprecedented departure from the normal constitutional pattern followed elsewhere. Under unlamented provisions of articles 44 and 102 of the constitution, any citizen or in some cases, any person aggrieved by an infraction of any of the fundamental rights could move the supreme court for the necessary relief. Besides, being in conformity with the constitutional principles followed in countries which declared similar rights in their constitutions, the provisions relating to enforcement of fundamental rights by the supreme court as originally incorporated in article 44 and 102 of the constitution were considered necessary for three reasons, namely, rights of citizens declared under the constitution should, in fitness of thing and in accord with constitutional propriety, be adjudicated upon by one of the principal organs of government, namely, the highest tribunal, the supreme court of Bangladesh, for, in many cases involving the breach of fundamental rights the respondent against whom remedy would be sought is one or the remaining two organs of the government, namely, the executive or the legislature. Since the constitution declared the fundamental rights, they are limitation on the powers of the legislature as well as the executive and whether such limitations have been transgressed by them determination, by an independent and impartial body or tribunal, involving high policy considerations. Secondly, such adjudication by the highest tribunal in the country was preferred because it is likely to command respect both of the rulers and the governed, perhaps, quite understandably, more than any other tribunal or court set up under an act of parliament. Thirdly, such means of enforcement would ensure speedy remedy, the number of appeals against an order made by the court would be minimized; under the un amended provision of articles 44 and 102 only one appeal from such an order lay to the appellate division of the court. If leave to appeal was granted to be it under article 103(3), or a certificate to appeal was granted by the High court Division under article 103(2) of the constitution.

Changes made by the 5th Amendment:

The 5th Amendment brought, inter alias, the following important changes in the constitution:

  1. Part VIA of the constitution dealing with one party system as introduced by the 4th Amendment was omitted.
  2. The independence of judiciary which was completely destroyed by the 4th Amendment was restored partially (Articles 96 and 116).
  3. The jurisdiction of the High court Division of the Supreme Court to enforce fundamental rights was restored to its original position as was in the original constitution (Article 44 and 102).]
  4. Provision of supreme judicial council in respect of security of tenure of the judges of the Supreme Court was interested (Article96).
  5. The provision of absolute veto power of the president introduced by the 4th Amendment was abolished (Article 80).
  6. A provision of referendum in respect of amendment of certain provisions of the constitution was inserted and to that end a new clause IA was created in Article 142.
  7. Religious words ‘BISMILLAHIR RAHMANIR RAHIM’ was inserted in the beginning of the constitution i.e. above the preamble.
  8. In the original constitution it was provided in Article 6 that citizens of Bangladesh would be known as ‘BANGALEES’ But this was changed and it was provided now that citizens would be known as Bangladeshis.
  9. One of four major fundamental principles of state policy ‘SECULARISM’ was omitted and in its place a new one the principle of absolute trust and faith in the Almighty Allah was inserted (Article 8).
  10. One of four major fundamental principles of state policy socialism was given a new explanation to the effect that socialism would mean economic and social justice (Article 8).
  11. A new article 145A was created where it was provided that all international treaties would be submitted to the president who should cause them to be laid parliament.
  12. Another new Article 92A was created where by the president was given power to expend public moneys in certain cases.
  13. Article 58 was amended to the effect that four-fifths of the total number of minister should be taken from among the members of parliament. It was also provided that the president would appoint as prime Minister the Member of Parliament who appeared to him to command the support of the majority of the members of parliament.

Some Case studies On The Fundamental rights:

Case Reference no.1

 Dr. Nurul Islam v. Bangladesh

Fact of the case

The appellant Dr. Nurul Islam was appointed an assistant surgeon in 1952(in East Bengal) and by successive promotions he became the Director and professor of medicine of the Institute of post-graduate and Research in 1971(in Bangladesh).In November, 1978 the Govt. issued a notice where by the appellant was relieved of his duties as professor of Medicine; he was to continue as Director of the institute which was made a non-practicing post. The appellant challenged this notice in the High Court Division by write petition no. 571 of 197889 and a bench of the High Court Division on 6-12-79 declared the notice to have been issued without lawful authority. The government as found by the Supreme Court  , reacted to the High Court declaration by ordering the retirement of the appellant from service under sub-section(2)of section 9 of the public servants Retirement Act, 1974 which is to the effect that the Govt. is empowered to retire a govt. servant on the completion of 25 years service . The appellant again challenged this order in a fresh write petition to the High Court Division on the ground, amongst others, that the retirement order is just a measure of punishment on him for his successful challenge of the Governments previous notice declared to have been issued without lawful authority. The High Court Division in the present instance refused with the Govt.’s decision in retiring the appellant 4/s 9(2) of the public service retirement Act and gave him no relief  where upon the appellant move the Appellate Division as against the aforesaid decision of the High Court Division alleging, inter alia,malafide in the Government in causing his premature retirement; he further stated that there are in the cadre as many as 34 doctors who have completed 25 years service and many of whom were senior to the appellant in service but none of them had been retired . It was therefore contended that the impugned notification issued on June 5, 1980 was issued for collateral purposes the provisions of Article 27 and 29 of the constitution appellant was not given any opportunity of being heard before the impugned notification was issued it was violated of Article 135 of the constitution.

Judgment of the case

Article 27 of the constitution which speaks of entitled to equal protection of law interpreted by R.Islam, J.at paragraph 87 as under:

 “The principle on which the doctrine of equal protection of laws is founded is that persons in similar circumstances must be governed by the same laws. The legislative classification by itself does not offend against the principle of equal protection of the laws provided the laws operate equally in all members of the said class or group. For valid legislation, classification must be reasonable for the purpose of legislation, should be based on proper and justifiable distinction, should not clearly arbitrary and should have all reasonable relation to the objects and to the public purpose sought to be achieved by the legislation.

Case reference no 2

University of Dhaka v.Dr.S.Hussain and another

Fact of the case

The principle of protection as provided in Article 35 of the constitution was invoked in as much as presidents order No. 67 of 1972 does not contain any express words giving retrospective effect, but the statute is prospective in nature only. Dr. Sayed Sajjad Hossain, who was the vice chancellor of the DhakaUniversity during the war Liberation. His case was referred to the First screening Board constituted under the presidents order No. 67 of 1972. The screening Board found him guilty. Accordingly, the respondent was dismissed from his service. The dismissal order was challenged before the High Court Division. The High Court Division upheld the order of dismissal.

Judgment of the case

B.H.Chowdhury, J. in paragraph 45 as held as follows:

In view of the matter the opinion of the activities attributed to the respondent Dr. Sajjad Hossain and Dr. Mohar Ali allegedly were performed in 1971 do not come within the mischief of the presidents order No. 67 of the 1972. Such activities are punishable under presidents order No. 8 of 1972 which was given retrospective effect. Both the respondents were given clemency and in the write petition they quoted the statement of the prime minister as mentioned in the press note. After assurance of such clemency, it was not permissible for initiation of any proceedings. Presidents order NO.67 of 1972, however, has no manner of application because it was not given respective effect.

Recommendations & Concluding Remarks

We have been observed that the constitution of Bangladesh has included all the basic attributes of fundamental rights. But practically sometimes the government is compelled to violate the fundamental rights of the people in Bangladesh due to some unavoidable circumstances. The ruling class should be truly respectful to the fundamental rights of the people. There should not be any international barrier Created by government for political interest and to oppress the opposite. It is the responsibility of the government to limit the events to violate the fundamental rights of the people and try their best respond these rights in some very rare cases where there is no really no other alternative and which is truly done for the sake of the country s overall benefit with no purpose of self interest of the ruling party some more restriction and controlling can be developed in the constitution of our country to regulate and prevent the indiscriminate and whimsical violation of the rights by the ruling power further more, the consciousness rights. So their rights can not be violated by the ruling class for their self interest.